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Intellectual capital

Per Nikolaj Bukh has done research on Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management and Intellectual Capital statements since 1997. He partcipated from 1998 to 2003 in two large research and development projects organised by the Danish Ministry of Research in order to develop a Danish guideline for IC reporting. As part of these projects Per Nikolaj Bukh drafted together with Professor Jan Mouritsen the Danish Guideline on IC Reporting. Further, he participated in the reserach projects MERITUM and E*KnowNet where the Danish guidelines were used as the basis for international research and dissimination of research results.

His research on IC reporting has led to a large number of articles, book chapters, books and research reports. A complete list of publications can be found at the Danish site. If you are interested in research you can go directly to the list of articles in international journals.

Over the years Per Nikolaj Bukh has given a number of talks on intellectual capital at Danish and international conferences. He has also as consultant assisted several European firms in the developent of knowledge based strategies and Intellectual Capital reports.

Articles on Intellectual Capital and related topics

Nielsen, Christian & Per Nikolaj Bukh. 2011.  What constitutes a business model: The perception of financial analysts. International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital 8(3):256-271.

Bukh, Per Nikolaj & Christian Nielsen. 2011 The Supply of and Demand for Strategic Information: A Case Study of a large Medical Device Company. Journal of Human Resource Costing and Accounting 15(1):50-77.

Bukh, Per Nikolaj & Christian Nielsen. 2010. Understanding the health care business model:The financial analysts' point of view. Journal of Health Care Finance 37(2):8-26. 

White, Gregory; Alina Lee; Yuni Yuningsih, Christian Nielsen & Per Nikolaj Bukh. 2010. The nature and extend of voluntary intellectual capital disclosure by Australian and UK biotechnology companiesJournal of Intellectual Capital 10(4):519-536.

Chrisensen, Karina Skovvang & Per Nikolaj Bukh. 2009. Knowledge Management in perspectices: An analysis of project management in two companies. International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies 3(2/3):313-330.

Bukh. Per Nikolaj & Kjærgaard, Isa Jensen. 2008. Intellectual capital statements in the Danish utility sector: Enactment of controlJournal of Human Resource Costing and Accounting, 12(3):148-178.

Bukh, Per Nikolaj, Jan Mouritsen, Christian Nielsen & Peter Gormsen. 2006. Intellectual capital reports on their way to the stock exchange? A comparison of IPO prospectures and new reporting forms: Analyzing new reporting formsJournal of Intellectual Capital. 17(2):221-240 

Bukh, Per Nikolaj, Christian Nielsen, Jan Mouritsen & Peter Gormsen. 2006. Disclosure of Information on Intellectual Capital indicators in Danish IPO ProspectusesAccounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal18(6):713-732.

Mouritsen, Jan; Per Nikolaj Bukh & Heine K. Bang. 2005. Understanding Intellectual Capital in an Innovative Medium-sized Firm: The Case of Maxon. Australian Accounting Review 15(2):31-39.

Mouritsen, Jan, Heine T. Larsen & Per Nikolaj Bukh. 2005. Dealing with the knowledge economy: Intellectual capital vs. Balanced ScorecardJournal of Intellectual Capital 6(1):8-27.

Mouritsen, Jan; Stefan Thorbjørnsen, Per Nikolaj Bukh & Mette Rosenkrands Johansen. 2005. Intellectual capital and the discourses of love and entrepreneurship in new public managementFinancial Accountability and Management 21(3):279-290. 

Thorbjørnson, Stefan, Jan Mouritsen, Per Nikolaj Bukh & Mette Rosenkrands Johansen. 2004. Intellectual capital and new public management: Reintroducing EnterpriseThe Learning Organization: An International Journal11(4/5):380-392.

Bukh, Per Nikolaj, Mette Rosenkrands Johansen og Jan Mouritsen. 2002. Multiple Integrated Performance Management Systems: IC and BSC in a software company. I Singapore Management Review 24(3):21-33.

Bukh, Per Nikolaj. 2002. The relevance of intellectual capital disclosure: a paradox?. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal 16(1):49-56.

Mouritsen, Jan, Per Nikolaj Bukh, Mette Rosenkrands Johansen & Heine T. Larsen. 2002. Developing and Managing Knowledge through Intellectual Capital StatementsJournal of Intellectual Capital 3(1):10-29.

Mouritsen, Jan, Heine T. Larsen & Per Nikolaj Bukh. 2001. Intellectual Capital and the 'Capable Firm': Narrating, Visualising and Numbering for Managing Knowledge. Accounting, Organisations and Society26(7):735-762.

Mouritsen, Jan, Heine T. Larsen, Per Nikolaj Bukh & Mette Rosenkrands Johansen. 2001. Reading an Intellectual Capital Statement: Describing and prescribing knowledge management strategies. Journal of Intellectual Capital 2(4):359-383.

Bukh, Per Nikolaj , Heine T. Larsen & Jan Mouritsen. 2001. Constructing intellectual capital statements.Scandinavian Journal of Management 17(1):87-108.

IC statements - The new guideline

In February 2003 The Danish Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation issued two new publications Intellectual Capital Statements - The New Guideline and Analysing Intellectual Capital Statements. The first, Intellectual Capital Statements - The New Guideline is addressed to those, who whish to know more about intellectual capital statements and to those who whish preparing intellectual capital statements. The guideline shows how to prepare intellectual capital statements - from strategy to action - and how to communicate the results in the external intellectual capital statement.

The ministry's second new publication, Analysing Intellectual Capital Statements, is a simple analysis model, which can help the professional reader structure his or her analyses of the many figures and information in intellectual capital statements.

Intellectual Capital Statements - The New Guideline is built on a very solid basis. The first guideline was published in November 2000, and since about 100 very different private companies and public organisations have tested the guideline in co-operation with a number of organisations etc. The research team followed, brought together and processed these companies' experiences.

The test phase results send a very clear message. Working with intellectual capital statements makes a difference. Companies achieve much better knowledge management and it provides companies with a powerful tool in communicating with their surroundings. In the view of the ministry the concept of intellectual capital statements is now so well developed and has found a form, which mean that there is no longer a big need for a development project about the concept. Therefore the ministry withdraws from the project in the first half-year of 2003. Hereafter The Danish Commerce and Companies Agency will take over the concept of intellectual capital statements. The agency has a considerable expertise on financial as well as non-financial accounts. Both the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation and The Danish Commerce and Companies Agency find it natural that the agency now takes over the continuation and further development of the concept.

A Guideline for Intellectual Capital Statements

This guideline is the 'original' guideline that was developed in the first research project organised by the Danish Ministry of Research - and tested in the second research project. This guideline to knowledge management was the world to be based on the experience gained by a major group of companies in preparing intellectual capital statements. The guideline is the result of the unique collaboration of companies, consultants, government officials and researchers over several years.

Its objective is to act as a source of inspiration to other companies in preparing intellectual capital statements by demonstrating a practical approach. The increased interest in intellectual capital statements reflects the concern of more and more companies in realising the strategic importance of knowledge management in the broadest sense. They are aware of the growing need for developing their knowledge resources still further. More over, they want to be able to communicate this development in a comprehensible and credible manner.

Experience from the participating companies shows that the task is quite a challenge, but not an impossible one. They also found that the intellectual capital statement leads to impressive results - both within the organisation and externally in relation to customers, investors and society.  The guideline presents a systematic review of the phases of preparing and structuring an intellectual capital statement. To illustrate the principles, concrete examples are provided based on the experience of several of the companies involved.

The guideline can be downloaded here.

Read an offprint of the case Intellectual Capital Reporting and Knowledge Management in Systematic - a translation of the chapter Videnregnskab og videnstyring i Systematic from the book Videnregnskaber:  rapportering og styring af virksomhedens videnressourcer, Børsens publishers. 2001. 

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